Comm 15000 Persuasive Speech
Researching your topic:
The first thing you will
want to do when starting your persuasive speech is research. This is college-level research so don’t
jump on the web for just any old website.
I recommend you start your research at
Recommendations for conducting research:
· The generic Top Level domain (“.com”, “.net”, “.edu”, “.org”…etc.) of the website will often tell you a lot about the source. These will tell you if it is a commercial website (.com or .net), one from an educational institution (.edu), a government site (.gov) or organization (.org). For the most part “.edu” and “.gov” are reliable sources but this doesn’t mean the others can’t be.
· Be weary of bias: Just because the website comes from an educational institution doesn’t mean it isn’t the biased opinion of an unreliable source. Is the website taking a stance or just providing the clear, unaltered facts?
· Check and compare your website with at least 2 or 3 other sites to find out truthfulness of its information. When you find a website you might want to use the “Favorites” tab in Internet Explorer to add it to your favorites so you can easily get back to it. Comparing the website with others will help to check the site’s information and its validity as well as possibly find additional sources.
· Check for authorship of the site. If no one is taking credit for the information, then what is this telling you? A website with an author tells you who they are (check their credentials) and that they are willing to “backup” their information with their name.
1. Start by using
2. Research your topic by subject. This link will allow you to search
3. Once you have chosen a database you will be
directed to enter your username (prefix of your
4. Start searching your topic. I recommend starting out with the link in step 1, Academic Search Premiere Database, or JSTOR when you are going to begin researching. Click here to access these databases as well as many others.
5. There are additional links on my Pathfinder page for conducting research. Click here to go there now.
Note: You need at least 4
sources for your persuasive speech and 3 of them can’t be web sources. Just remember though if you find an article
from one of the
Writing a persuasive speech:
Now that you have
completed your research, it is time for you to write the formal outline for
your persuasive speech. You will be
Persuasive Speech General Instructions
Dr. Margaret Wick
Note: The page numbers refer to the Course Packet.
7-9 minutes (6.5-9.5) + 1 – 2 minutes for questions
Points and Due Dates:
Your first speech will be a policy speech to persuade your audience to action. See your Tentative Schedule in your Syllabus for presentation dates and other due dates. Your Persuasive Speech points will come from the following segments.
Preparatory Materials that you will turn in ahead of time will be worth 1 quiz grade each (i.e., 10 points) - Topic approval sheet, sources, & rough drafts of speech body with references . See the Tentative Schedule in your Syllabus for specific due dates of these materials. No points if late.
- See page 61 for the Persuasive Speech Topic
-See page 62 for a Sample Completed Topic
-See page 64 for Rough Draft Persuasive Speech
Outline Using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
Sentence Outline with Reference Page in
-See page 67 for the Outline Format you should
follow for this speech. You will be using a format
-See page 69 for the Persuasive Speech Outline
-See pages 70 for a Sample Student Persuasive
Speech Outline with References
· Presentation Day Materials are due on your speaking day (Week 9). No points if late. Along with giving the speech worth 100 points, you will turn in a speech folder that should contain your topic approval sheet, your rough speech body outline and reference list, your graded formal outline with references, and copies of all of the actual sources you have used in your speech. Not turning these things in will result in a penalty of up to 10 points.
-See page 76 for the Prof’s Evaluation Sheet for
the Persuasive Speech.
· Peer Critiques – Each day of speeches, you will be asked to complete 1 or more evaluations of your peers. These will then go into each speaker’s speech folder. Doing these each day of speeches and doing them thoroughly, insightfully, and empathetically will be what earns you full points. These will be worth a total of 10 points.
-See pages 77-81 for the Persuasive Speech
Peer Evaluation Forms. You should bring these
to class with you on Speech 1 days.
· Measurable Goals and Strategies - When you have finished your speech and received feedback from your professor and peers, you will watch your speech and identify specific areas for improvement. You will then set specific, measurable goals, and lay out specific strategies you will use to achieve these goals. See page 83 for more complete instructions. These goals and strategies are worth 25 points.
The general purpose of Speech 1 is to persuade. More specifically, it is a speech to actuate or get the audience to take an action. Using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence as your organizational pattern, you will need to convince the audience of a need or problem, offer a solution, have the audience think about the future as it pertains to your topic, and convince the audience to take some realistic action to help solve the problem or meet the need.
Description and Research Requirements:
Speech 1 is a formal speech that should have a strong research component to it. Your dress, language, visuals, and general demeanor should reflect the formality of the event.
You should use at least 4 sources for this speech. One of these should come from a recent newspaper. Use no more than 1 Website source, and it must have a date on it and the credentials of the Website’s creators must be available and credible.
Of course, you will cite your sources as you use them. Whether you quote from sources or put information in your own words, you must say where you got the information. You will give credit to the source in the speech, on the full-sentence outline, and on the reference page you attach to the full-sentence outline.
persuasive speech should be about a problem or something that is in need of
change. You should select a topic
that is of current significance socially, politically, or culturally to this
Your topic must be controversial; in other words, your audience can’t already agree with your position, so you might need to ask the audience about the topic & you will need to get instructor approval for your topic. Please NOTE: DO NOT advocate unethical or illegal actions & avoid topics related to steroids, smoking, marijuana, and abortion because Dr. Wick has heard so many of them.
You may use the same general topic for this speech and your informative speech. Obviously, in this speech, your focus will be different and the specific content of these two speeches should be significantly different.
Topic Approval Sheet:
Early in the semester, you will submit a topic approval sheet. See the Tentative Schedule for the specific due date for this speech and the informative speech.
-See page 61 for the Persuasive Speech Topic
-See page 62 for a Sample Persuasive Speech
Topic Approval sheet.
Full-Sentence Planning Outline & Reference List:
outline is worth 50 points. Approximately 10 days prior
to your speech, you will submit a formal, detailed full-sentence
outline. This outline will follow
-See the Persuasive Speech Outline Format on
-See the Persuasive Speech Outline Score
Sheet on page 69.
-See the Sample Student Persuasive Speech
Outline on pages 70-75.
Please remember that late outlines receive no credit!
For this speech, you must use
Dr. Margaret Wick
Day & Time:
Title/ topic (optional): State it
Specific purpose: State it ahead of time
Central idea: State it here, as it appears in part D of the introduction. In 1 sentence or 2, tell us what the problem or need is & what your solution is.
I. Introduction - The attention step.
A. Hook - get our attention.
B. Lead us into the topic.
C. Establish your credibility.
D. State your central idea (as you have put it above).
E. Give us a preview/roadmap of the rest of the speech.
(Transition to the body, if helpful).
II. Body 1 - The problem step (convince us one exists)
A. Concisely (1 or 2 sentences), describe the problem (this is like your key idea
in informative speech).
B. Let me explain:
1. Clarify and/or explain the problem.
2. Give details & support for why this is a problem. This part is much
more detailed & should include a number of sub-points (i.e., 1, 2, 3 etc.- evidence you cite).
C. Show the extent or seriousness of the problem (can use factual information, statistics, examples, stories, testimony. Be sure to cite your sources.).
*D. Talk about how this problem affects the audience– tell audience why should they care about this problem.
(Transition to the solution, if helpful)
A. State what action you are advocating (be short & to the point, like key idea in the problem section).
B. Explain what your proposal is & give the details of what it will entail. This part is longer & involves points 1,2,3, etc.
C. Show how your solution or plan solves the problem (match to what you have mentioned in II B 1,2,3,4,etc.)
*D. Tell about similar solutions that have worked elsewhere (& by analogy how it should work in yours). Be creative here.
*E. Raise and answer objections someone might have to your plan or solution.
(Transition to the visualization section, if helpful)
IV. Body 3 - Visualizing the results (intensify listeners’ desire to solve the problem by looking toward the future). You can do this by using 1 of the following methods. Be sure that you are realistic. Choose the method that strengthens your argument the most.
The positive method
Vividly describe the potential improvements that will occur if your plan is implemented .
The negative method
Vividly describe conditions if your plan is not carried out; i.e., what evils will arise from failure to implement your plan or how the problem will be aggravated if your proposed solution is not implemented.
The combination of positive and negative method
Describe what will happen if your plan is not carried out and contrast this with what will happen if your plan is carried out. You can do this in either order.
V. Conclusion - the call to action – (appeal to listeners to act).
A. Signal the end of the speech & remind listeners of the problem, your solution, what your solution can do to deal with the problem and why it is better than the status quo.
* B. Give a specific call to action – action(s) that audience members will
realistically take in the near future to enact your solution or plan.
C. Return to the hook or provide other psychological closure.
Include all your sources in a
hanging indented, double-spaced, alphabetical order, &
* Denotes critically important parts of the speech.
Note: Your outline should be word-processed and double-spaced in 12 point font. Also when citing a source from the current year in either your outline or speech, you do not have to include the year. You will still have to use it in the References page, but if you give a date without a year the audience is to assume it is from the present year.
Name: Connie Lapham – Modified slightly. A similar version of this outline appears
Professor: Dr. Wick
Day & Time: Saturday,
Title/topic: Preventing Shaken Baby Syndrome
Specific purpose: To convince my audience that incidences of shaken baby syndrome should
be prevented through education.
Central idea: Children under the age of five are at risk of being shaken & seriously injured
or killed by their caregivers. Expanding the educational component of
shaken baby syndrome (SBS) beyond the new parent & hospital discharge
plan can prevent incidences of this form of child abuse.
I. Introduction – The attention step.
A. It is on a warm, sunny Saturday afternoon. The delicate scents of roses, lilacs & wildflowers fill the air. As you touch the petals of the fragrant flowers, your eyes are drawn to the shiny, gold frame on the table. In the frame is a picture of a beautiful little baby. As your eyes continue to scan the room, you are jolted back into the reality of the occasion. Unfortunately, the baby lying in the small white casket looks nothing like the beautiful little baby in the picture. What went wrong?
B. Three days ago you visited the proud, new parents. As you cuddled and rocked their new little life, the parents told you that this was the first time the baby had been quiet. Since they had been home from the hospital, the baby had not stopped crying; no matter what they tried. You acknowledged that they looked worn out, but you assured them that what they were experiencing was normal; you jokingly stated that managing a crying baby was a “rite of passage” all new parents must face. But now, as you gently touch the tiny fingers of this lifeless child, you can’t quiet the persistent shouting in your mind; the words spoken are burning the horrendous image you now face–“Could I have prevented this?”
D. Children under the age of five are at risk of being shaken & seriously injured or killed by their caregivers. To prevent babies & young children from severe damage & death, we must expand the educational component of SBS beyond the new parent & hospital discharge plan.
E. During my presentation today I will discuss the devastating problem of SBS, what can be done to help reduce it, what the impact on society will be if incidences continue to grow, & what you can do to prevent this tragedy from happening to a child you know.
II. Body Section 1 – The need step.
A. What is the problem? Simply
stated, innocent babies and young children have become the targets of
out-of-control caregivers. According to the
B. Let’s look at 3 key factors that contribute to SBS’s occurrence–the babies themselves, their caregivers, and the difficulties associated with detecting SBS.
1. First, young babies’ anatomical structures set them up to be vulnerable says the August 2000 Critical Care Nursing Quarterly.
a. Babies have large, heavy heads–about 10% of their total weight – their neck muscles are weak and can’t e absorb the energy generated by the whiplash motion of shaking.
b. Babies also lack proper head control, so they when a parent or caregiver shakes a baby like this [demonstrate], the baby’s head is going to flop around worse than an older child’s head would flop under the same conditions.
2. Second, the same article lists characteristics of caregivers that contribute to the problem.
a. New parents & their caregivers lack the life experience & knowledge of what to expect from their children. Some babysitters are extremely young and inexperienced.
b. Caregivers may abuse substances. When they do, the risks of SBS are much
higher. In particular, babies born to drug-addicted mothers are at an extreme risk.
c. New babies spend about 20% of their time crying, and this can be stressful enough. Any added stresses in caregivers’ lives can make them feel dangerously helpless & frustrated. For parents and other caregivers under severe stress, an inconsolable baby can be the last straw. They explode and direct their anger and distress at the crying infant.
3. A third reason why SBS is so prevalent is that it can be extremely hard to detect.
According to the May/June 2003 issue of Orthopedic Nursing, two factors can
affect whether or not a diagnosis of SBS is made.
a. Typically, no one witnesses the frustrated caregiver and his or her assaults.
b. When a child is examined, his or her symptoms often mimic those of other childhood illnesses. Naturally, health professionals hesitate to accuse a parent of a crime they are not sure has been committed. This leaves the children vulnerable to future abuse.
C. How serious is this? Unfortunately, it is serious because it’s both common & catastrophic.
1. Sadly, it is common locally. The
2. On a national level, the May/June 2003 issue of Orthopedic Nursing states that an
estimated 1.9 million children are the victims of physical violence severe enough to cause physical injury. Most victims are younger than age 2, but it can also occur in children ages 2-5. The November/December 2003 Child Abuse Review stated that the youngest infant with symptoms of non-intentional head injury was just 19 days old.
3. The August 2000 Critical
Care Nursing Quarterly states, “head trauma is the most frequent cause of
permanent damage or death among abused infants and children. A significant
number of cases of head trauma are a direct result of shaken baby syndrome.”
The May/June issue of Orthopedic Nursing adds that the injuries sustained
cause more than, I quote, “two out of five deaths (43%) of children aged
1 through 4 years.” As you can
damages are serious, long-term, and costly to taxpayers. The March 2002 issue
a. Neuromotor impairments such as cerebral palsy, physical disabilities, speech disabilities, and seizure disorder.
b. Visual impairments, including blindness.
c. Developmental delays, such as learning disabilities and behavior disorders.
d. There is evidence that private insurance companies will refuse payment for treatment of
injuries resulting from SBS, forcing the parent(s) to apply for Medicaid.
D. Why should we care?
1. I, like many other parents have raised children. I know the frustration & inadequacy I experienced when my babies would not stop crying. At that time, new parents-to-be were required to attend childbirth classes if the father was to be present for the birth. However, never once were my husband and I informed about how to take care of our baby when we got home. Would we have benefited from this education? You bet!
2. God forbid, we could be guilty of SBS, or one of our children or grandchildren suffer such a horrendous injury at the hands of a parent, babysitter, or other child-care provider.
3. Someone here might even know someone who has committed this crime.
A. Can anything be done to prevent shaken baby syndrome besides throwing a
caregiver in jail after the fact? Yes. We must increase the number of opportunities to
educate caregivers about how to prevent SBS and we must support them.
1. According to November/December 2003 Child Abuse Review, an effective strategy for preventing SBS combines education and publicity.
2. Unless people know what it is, that it is a common problem, and that we are willing to
help people when they need it, we won’t be effective in reducing SBS.
B. Let me explain my specific strategies. In order to reach as many caregivers as possible we have to pass the message along. We should use 2 ways of educating caregivers, those that should be the law, and those that should be strongly encouraged.
1. First, let’s look at the ones that should be required by law.
a. Obstetricians & midwives should be required to counsel parents about stress & SBS before and after babies are born.
b. Childbirth classes should be required for all parents and should include an animated video.
c. Nurses & doctors should teach an SBS class to new mothers while they are in the hospital.
d. Intensive care units should provide classes for all parents with children in the unit.
e. Family physicians providing well baby check-ups, illness treatment, and immunizations should counsel all parents about SBS.
f. Local school systems should teach students about SBS in health classes.
2. In addition to these measures required by law, I also urge several more measures:
a. Churches should bring in nurses to teach about SBS, and churches should be places where frustrated parents know they can find someone to help.
b. At baby showers, each guest could share a tip for comforting the new baby.
c. Family & friends should be give key support. They should call to see how things are going. & watch for inappropriate responses to babies’ crying. They should visit often to ease the feelings of isolation new parents often feel.
d. Parents should insist and pay for their babysitters to attend a hospital or community sponsored training class before they care for their children.
C. How does my solution solve the problem?
1. First, in order to put the pieces of a puzzle together, let’s see how the pieces fit together.
2. Educating current & potential caregivers can bring those puzzle pieces together,& create a much brighter future for a child.
3. Describing the child’s expected developmental abilities can help diffuse caregivers’ unrealistic expectations of their children.
D. How do we know that education will work?
1. To raise public awareness about shaken baby syndrome, in 1997, Akron Children’s Hospital & Ohio District Kiwanis clubs launched the “Never, Never, Never Shake a Baby” campaign.
2. As a result of this campaign & House Bill 76 (the Shaken Baby Bill), Akron Children’s Hospital has created “Tips to Grow By” a handout with symptoms, causes, & ways to prevent SBS.
3. According to the November/December 2003 Child Abuse Review, three years ago, very few books about SBS existed. Today, on Amazon.com, I only found 9 titles. The better news, however, is that when I searched on Google, I got 101,000 hits on SBS.
E. Could anyone be against educating caregivers to the extent I am proposing?
1. Yes. The August 2000 issue of Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, some Hispanics use a folk medicine custom called “Calda de Mollera,” to raise a baby’s soft spot. They hold babies upside down over pans of hot water slap their heels, & shake them up & down [demonstrate]. Clearly we need to educate this population about the dangers of this custom.
2. Others might say that shaking a baby is acceptable for resuscitation. Minor head injuries are to be expected in young children, as the November/December 2003 Child Abuse Review notes. However, no research that I have found supports shaking babies to resuscitate them.
3. Some people say that caregivers can’t help shaking babies, even though they know it’s wrong. This issue is the most troubling of all because most incidences of SBS when caregivers are super upset. In order to reverse this problem, caregivers must be educated about how to handle their own emotions and about how vulnerable children are to severe injury. More importantly, society and individuals must be ready to support the desperate parent.
4. Some people might say it is a waste of time and money to educate everyone. Why not focus on those most at risk? But all caregivers have the potential to shake babies, so it would be a tragic mistake to focus solely on those families considered to be high risk.
5. Won’t this plan be costly? Yes, in the short run, but if we can save children from SBS and its consequences, we will be saving untold dollars in reduced medical & educational costs. If we can prevent it from happening, we will even save the costs of incarcerating those who might abuse their children.
IV. Body Section 3 – Visualizing the results: The negative method
A. Without a strong educational base, babies & young children will continue to suffer needless injuries or death by shaken baby syndrome. Caregivers will believe that shaking a difficult child is acceptable. Caregivers who injure children will have to live with guilt for as long as they live.
B. Since insurance companies won’t foot the bill for treating shaken babies, the government will have pay the tab, & we pay the government’s tab.
V. Conclusion – the call to action.
A. Review Today I have discussed how children under the age of 5 are at risk of being shaken & seriously injured or killed by their caregivers. I have proposed that by expanding the educational component of shaken baby syndrome beyond the new parent & baby hospital discharge plan, incidences of this form of child abuse can be prevented, & that choosing to do nothing will only place innocent children in harm’s way.
B. Call to Action – What can you do to help?
1. It’s simple really. The next time you go to the doctor, ask what information your doctor provides new parents or caregivers.
2. Don’t go to the doctor often? Take the opportunity to discuss the dangers of SBS with friends, family members, or other caregivers.
3. If you are a parent, insist that your child’s caregivers take a class or watch a video about SBS. Go with them and talk about what you learn in the class.
4. If you have older children, teach them about SBS & how to handle getting frustrated while caring for a baby.
C. Logical Closure As you are standing amongst the seemingly endless bouquets of fragrant flowers, your attention drifts from the picture of that precious, beautiful baby to the still, lifeless body in the box. Is that child at peace? Not as long as the voice you hear racing through your mind continues, repeatedly asking the same question, “What could I have done?”
Children’s Hospital. (2003, January). Shaken baby syndrome. Tips to Grow
By, IN231. Retrieved
Akron Children’s Hospital, (2003, January 14 ). Never, never,
never shake a baby. Injury Prevention, 1-2. Retrieved
Amazon.com (2005). Books search results: Shaken baby syndrome. Retrieved
Fulton, D. R. (2000, August). Shaken baby syndrome [Electronic
version]. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 23 (2), 43-50.
Kemp, A., & Coles, L. (2003, November/December). The role of
health professionals in preventing non-accidental head injury [Electronic
version]. Child Abuse Review, 12 (6), 374-383. Retrieved
Meyer, E. (2005, February 9). Murder case filed over baby.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2005,
February 9). What is shaken baby syndrome? NINDS Shaken Baby Syndrome
Information Page, 1-2. Retrieved
Sidebotham, P. (2003, November/December). Protecting babies
[Electronic version]. Child Abuse Review, 12 (6), 353-357. Retrieved
Smith, J. (2003, May/June). Shaken baby syndrome [Electronic
version]. Orthopedic Nursing, 22 (3), 196-203. Retrieved
P. L. (2003, November/December). Shaken baby syndrome- an introduction to the
literature. Child Abuse Review, 12 (6), 401-415. Retrieved
Speech 2 – Persuasive Speech Full-Sentence Outline Format
Name: Thomas Carli
Professor & Class: Dr. Wick, Communication 15000, TR
Specific Purpose: To convince my audience that the current administration
has made monumental mistakes and how we can turn
things around in this country by staying informed and
Central Idea: The Bush administration is cloaked in scandal, the war
voters ages eighteen to twenty-nine are doing very little
to combat the Bush administration’s failing tactics.
I. Introduction – The attention step.
A. What does being an American mean to you? (pause) By a show of
hands how many of you are registered to vote? (pause) Two months
ago marked the
fifth anniversary of what changed the face of
forever. Do you feel any safer? Very little has been done since then to
out of its political and economical slump. The Bush administration
continues to build its Evil Empire as American troops face inadequate
impending death, meanwhile
its grip on the position of being the strongest nation in the world. In
the FBI has tripled its Capitol Hill corruption squads to investigate
lobbyists, lawmakers, and influence peddlers under the Bush
B. The Bush administration has misled the general public and has made
a slew of bad decisions that negatively affect all of Americans.
C. My two brothers have both
served overseas in
it is like to write letters behind a shroud of uncertainty, wondering if
they will ever come home again. Wondering if this photo will be the
only way I will get to be with them ever again. I see through the eyes of
my brothers the absolute disaster that is the Bush administration’s War
on Terror. I am very proud to be an American and I am even more
proud of what soldiers like my two brothers are willing to sacrifice
for this country. I feel an intense need to stay informed of worldly
events and exercise my right as an American to vote.
D. The Bush administration is
cloaked in scandal, the war in
disaster, Bush’s foreign policy is a joke, and voters ages eighteen to
twenty-nine are doing very little to combat the Bush administration’s
E. During my presentation you will learn about the mistakes the Bush
administration has made, you will learn about voter turn out
II. Body Section 1 – The need step.
A. What is the problem? There are a barrage of problems with the
current administration. The fact that there are so many, it is in my
to focus on one: foreign policy in the
Unfortunately bilateral talks and foreign policy aren’t the Bush
administration’s strong suit. With the lack of peaceful discussions
sentiment between these countries and the
look at some of the problems with the war in
decision to go to
war, the strategy in
from the war.
President Bush acknowledged that Saddam Hussein was not
responsible for the attacks on September 11th that claimed the
lives of nearly 3,000 Americans. Bush stated that Hussein’s regime,
while lacking weapons of mass destruction, still posed a threat:
“a risk the world could not afford to take.”
2. In the address from Democratic National Committee Chairman
Howard Dean retrieved from Democrats.org, he states that, “The
stakes are too high to have a permanent commitment to a failed
3. In the report retrieved from icasualties.org, it states that October,
2006 has been
the deadliest month in
2003. To date 3,092
torture now in
civilian death toll as of February 2nd is between 55,541 and 61,113.
C. How important is foreign policy? – The importance of foreign policy
and bilateral talks is
evident in the current situation with
1. The report from
Democrats.org states that
capabilities have grown under President Bush.
2. In the National Security Advisory Group July, 2005 report retrieved
from Democrats.org, it states that under the Bush administration North
nuclear weapons worth of plutonium. The Bush administration has
tried to blame the
administration that actually stopped plutonium production in North
atrocities committed by the North Korean government. Korean
women who have been impregnated by Chinese men are forced to
abort their babies referred to as “Chinese chinks” by the government.
The article states that one women who refused to abort her baby was
kicked in the stomach until the baby was aborted, the dead fetus was
then violently ripped out from the mother’s body. There are also
reports of babies being delivered then placed into plastic containers
where the mothers are forced to watch them suffocate because of the
shame they have bestowed upon themselves by mating with the
D. Why should we care?
1. Everyone is affected by the poor decisions made by the Bush
administration. Without the use of a working foreign policy in this
world. This then creates negative
sentiment towards the
2. We have seen the importance of bilateral talks as evident by
agreement reached with
administration. I do not agree
with what is going on in
but the people have to eat. If
selling nuclear weapons to terrorists for money. While the attacks
on 9/11 were horrendous, a nuclear attack would be far more
A. While the President is not out of office until 2008, victory by the
Democrats in the past Midterm Election has created a
substantial shift in power. A lot of Bush’s bad decisions can be
Democrats. Let’s look at voter turnout
2002 Midterm Election. How does voter turnout among eighteen
to twenty-nine year olds compare to that of people over the age of
1. In the 2006 report from the Center for Information and Research on
Civic Learning and Engagement, it states that only twenty-one percent
of Ohioans ages eighteen to twenty-nine voted in the 2002 Midterm
Elections as compared to fifty percent by those over the age of thirty.
2. In the same report, it states that the 2004 Presidential Election did
increase in youth voter turnout up fourteen percent in
fifty-four percent of Ohioans ages eighteen to twenty-nine voted that
day. This turnout among youth voters ranked
3. The problem is that voter turnout, historically, has always been
higher for the Presidential Election than the Midterm Elections.
B. Let’s look at different things we as a country can do to improve
foreign policy in this country.
1. In the 2006 report retrieved from Democrats.org, it states that
Senator John Warner and Secretary Baker, Republicans, feel that
of foreign policy has caused a lot of the problems in
communication between nations in order to try to reach a peaceful
the Bush administration originally planned to “pick up where
President Clinton left off” concerning the foreign policy with
for what is going on today. After the North Korean’s recent testing
of nuclear missiles, the time to reach a resolution is running out. The
fact that there were no enrichment of plutonium products in North
people. President Clinton offered them assistance and they
responded positively. Since the Bush administration has put a
halt on such
but to resume plutonium enrichment for nuclear weaponry in hopes
to sell them to help their struggling economy.
3. A change in political leadership must occur, the simplest way
Americans can achieve this is to go out and vote.
C. How does my solution solve the problem?
1. Bilateral talks with
Il that the United States is making an effort to help them out.
2. In exchange for halting the enrichment of plutonium products,
that would diminish the need for
nuclear warheads for money. It would be easier to trade food and
money to reach a peaceful agreement than it would be to stop the
terrorists that bought weapons
3. An increase in voter turnout would also help the cause. It would
demonstrate to the politicians that younger voters’ opinions matter.
Currently, politicians put little effort in hearing young Americans’
thoughts because they know that very few of them vote. If more of
them voted than it would give the politicians more of a reason to
D. How do we know that bilateral talks will solve the problem?
1. Bilateral talks worked during the
eight year span of
had zero nuclear weapons as well as allowed inspectors to come into
food and economic assistance.
2. After George Bush became president, the bilateral talks were
the talks with
years since 9/11 occurred,
having no nuclear warheads to having four to six of them.
3. The Democratic party posted on their webpage, Democrats.org,
that a great enough victory in the Midterm Election would help this
happen. The Democrats know the importance of bilateral talks and
Democrats now are trying to resume talks with
but with the
previous distribution of power in
difficult to combat the Bush administration.
E. Could anyone be against bilateral talks or the increase of voter
turnout amongst younger Americans?
1. Simply stated, yes. President Bush has referred to
part of the axis of evil. He has refused to deal with countries who
“exhibit bad behavior.”
2. Many Americans might
disagree with dealing with
do not agree with what goes on there. Kim Jong Il is a ruthless dictator
who has committed many atrocities to women and children, but he is
very desperate to feed his people and restore his country’s economy. He
doesn’t wish war with the
these nuclear warheads that want to fight
3. The Bush administration fear an increase in voter turnout because
many of the views of Americans ages eighteen to twenty-nine starkly
contrasts what they are doing in this country.
IV. Body Section 3 – Visualizing the results: The negative method.
A. Without bilateral talks with
sell its nuclear weapons to terrorists for money. If the Bush
administration continues to ignore
have no other option then to reach an agreement with terrorists. I would
much rather see an agreement with the
mean to destroy our civilization.
B. Since most young voters do not participate in the elections in this
country, the trend of not listening to their views will continue. There
will be no room in this country for the voice of young
V. Conclusion – the call to action.
A. Review - Today I have informed you of some of the Bush
administration’s mistakes (specifically on the lack of bilateral talks
can do to keep the nation’s head above water.
B. Call to Action - What can you do to help?
1. The simplest solution is to stay informed. Watch credible news
sources, read the paper, and always question what the government is
doing to keep you and your family safe.
2. Go out and vote. If you are not registered to vote, then register.
Registration is easy and only takes about twenty minutes.
3. Urge your friends and family to become more involved in
politics. Often just talking about the problem will provide insight to
the problem and normally talks lead to possible solutions. Don’t be
afraid to voice your opinion as an American. People have died for
your right to free speech so speak up.
C. Logical Closure - Now that you are aware of the
what being given the right to vote means. Thousands of people
Iraqis vote. Isn’t it time that we as Americans not take for
granted what so many others have died for?
The dept to the
penny. (2006). Retrieved
Hunt, T. (2006, September 12). Answer call, Bush tells
Journal, p. A4.
Kim Jong Il.
King Jr., N. (2006, October 11). Iraqi death toll exceeds 600,000, study estimates.
The Wall Street Journal, p. A4.
Lopez, M. H., Marcelo K. B., & Sagoff, J. (2006). Quick facts about young voters in
Meek, J. G. (2006, September 19). D.C. corruption eruption. FBI forced to triple fraud
probe squads to
Sherridan, M. (2006, October 15). Nation under a nuclear cloud. The Sunday Times, p.
Under Bush, situation with
22, 2006, from http://www.democrats.org/a/p/dean_calls_for.html
adults. (2006). Retrieved
Using Microsoft PowerPoint™:
Microsoft PowerPoint™ allows you to present your perspective speech in an efficient and professional manner. Don’t worry if you don’t have any experience with the software. I will be offering a few classes on using PowerPoint™. Attending 1 class will provide you with more than enough information to create a professional PowerPoint™ presentation. I have also provided additional information in Pathfinder on using the software.
1. Start by creating the appropriate folders on your flash drive. I would create a folder and name it “Comm 15000”. Open that folder and create a new one naming it “Perspective Speech”. Open this folder and create one last folder naming it “Audio Pics Vid” (save all of your pictures, audio clips, and video files in this folder). Make sure these files are saved in this folder before inserting them into your PowerPoint™ presentation. This will help you to keep your presentation and corresponding files organized.
2. Go to Google search engine. This is a great place for finding pictures, sound clips, and video files. Yahoo is another good place to find these media files. Click on the corresponding tab for what type of file you are trying to find. When you use any of these types of media in your PowerPoint™ presentation, make sure you document when you found the files and the website they were retrieved from for when you do your References page.
3. Save all pictures, videos, and sound clips in your “Audio Pics Vid” folder. This is important. Whatever folder you import the media from into the presentation is where PowerPoint™ will look when you load up your saved presentation. Saving them in one folder on your flash drive will make it so the presentation always finds your files.
Note: It helps immensely
with the design of your program if you have your outline and/or speaking
notes next to you when designing the PowerPoint™ presentation. Also when putting text on a slide, only
supply a key note or topic. This sets
up what you will talk about. You
provide the information.
Persuasive Speech Full Sentence Outline Score Sheet
Dr. Margaret Wick
Name: ______________________ Total Score: ___________ _/50
Key: N= not done at all, WN=work needed, G=good job, E=Excellent job
Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . /10
Used letters & numbers correctly
Used complete sentences throughout
Had all the parts
Introduction – good attention step with all 5 parts
Concise statement of problem or need
Explanation of problem or need
How problem affects audience
Solution/Satisfaction of Need
Concise statement of action
Explain & give details
Show how solution will solve problem
Raise and answer objections
Call to action
Citing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . /10
Gave credit to sources any time you used borrowed ideas or words
Cited sources in the outline as you should cite sources in the speech
Gave enough citation information
Used mostly paraphrased information (vs. direct quotes)
Direct quotes (if used) stated so the audience knows you’re using exact words
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./10
Included references at the end of the outline
Cited & used in the speech all sources listed on the reference page
Quantity & Quality of Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . /10
Quantity - At least 4 sources & 3 or more that aren’t Websites
Quality - Substantive sources (appropriate to topic & assignment)
Information from sources forms an integral part of the speech & is integrated with your own.
Persuasive Speech Prof’s Evaluation Sheet
Presentation Points: _____/100
Time: ______________________ _____ Outline
Time: ______________________ _____ Penalty
_____ Total Points
(150 possible points)
Topic & Research (20 points)
_____ Topic socially, politically, religiously significant (1)
_____Persuasive, policy speech (1)
_____ Audience doesn’t already agree (1)
_____Adapted to audience (1)
_____ Topic from recent newspaper (1)
_____Sources credible, max 1 Website
_____ Cited at least 4 sources & cited them correctly (12)
_____ Used credible sources (3)
Introduction (12.5 points)
_____ 2.5 - Got our attention
_____ 2.5 - Led us into the topic
_____ 2.5 - Established credibility
_____ 2.5 - Stated clear central idea
_____ 2.5 - Previewed key body points
Body (25 points):
Need Step (10)
_____ 2.5 - Concisely & clearly stated need or problem
_____ 2.5 -Clearly & thoroughly explained need –
Convinced us one exists with solid evidence
_____ 2.5- Clearly & convincingly outlined seriousness of need
_____ 2.5- Let listeners know how this need/problem affects them
Solution Step (12.5)
_____ 2.5 - Concisely & clearly stated what action is necessary/desired
_____ 2.5 - Explained clearly & thoroughly what proposed plan/solution is
_____ 2.5 - Showed clearly how the plan will address the need/problems
_____ 2.5 - Discussed similar solutions
_____ 2.5 - Raised & answered convincingly typical objections to solution
Visualization Step (2.5)
_____ 2.5 - Well selected, vivid, convincing “ifs” strengthened argument
Conclusion (10 points)
_____ 3 - Appropriately signaled the end of speech & reminded listeners of central idea & key body points
_____ 4 - Call to action was doable, timely, specific, & relevant to plan
_____ 3 - Ended with strong psychological closure
Language (5 points)
_____2.5 - effective connectives ideas
_____2.5 - clear, interesting, vivid
Delivery (27.5) points
_____ 5 - Varied voice, loud enough
_____ 5 - Effective eye contact
_____ 5 - Extemporaneous delivery
_____ 5 - Minimal Distractions
_____ 5 - Used face & body well
_____ 2.5 - Q well done
_____Info missing from folder (up to 10)
_____ No tape (-10)
_____ Too much reading (up to 10)
_____Notes too many words (up to 10)
_____Over or undertime (2 pts/30 seconds)